Vocabulary / Synonyms for IELTS (Important list)

 Vocabulary / Synonyms for IELTS 

(Important list)


Abrupt = sudden, unexpected, rapid, hasty, immediate, quick, rushed.

Absolute = total, complete, utter, unqualified, unconditional, unlimited, supreme, fixed,

Absolution= forgiveness, pardon, release, freedom, liberty.

Absolutism = totalitarianism, despotism, dictatorship, tyranny, autocracy.

Abstain = desist, refrain, withdraw, go without, give up, decline to vote.

Acquaint = explain, run by, accustom, notify, tell.

Acquisition= gaining, attainment, achievement, getting hold of, acquirement, purchase, possession.

Adapt = become accustomed, familiarize yourself, get a feel for, get used to, acclimatize, find your feet, settle in, adjust.

Adequate = sufficient, ample, enough, plenty, passable, satisfactory, tolerable.

Adhere = stick, stick on, hold fast, hold, hold on, stay, remain.

Adolescence = teenage years, teens, youth, puberty.

Adolescent = teenager, young person, youth, youngster¸ juvenile, minor, pubescent.

Adopt = take on, accept, assume, approve, take up, agree to, espouse, implement.

Affinity = similarity, resemblance, likeness, empathy, sympathy, fellow feeling, attraction, kinship.

Affirmation = confirmation, assertion, pronouncement, avowal, declaration, announcement, statement, verification.

Affluent = rich, wealthy, well off, prosperous, comfortable, well heeled, born with a silver spoon in your mouth.

Agglomerate = jumbled collection, volcanic, in round mass.

Aggravate = make worse, worsen, exacerbate, exaggerate, heighten, intensify, magnify, fan the flames of.

Align = bring into line, line up, arrange in a line, make straight, make parallel, side with, support, ally.

Allegation = claim, accusation¸ assertion, contention, charge.

Alleged = supposed, suspected, so-called, assumed, allege.

Allegiance = loyalty, commitment, adherence, faithfulness, duty,

Alleviate = ease, lessen, assuage, improve, lighten.

Allude = refer, mention, indicate, suggest, talk about, touch on, introduce.

Alternative = option, choice, substitute, other, another, unusual, different, unconventional.

Amalgamated = compound, complex, merged, fused, combined, combination, multiple, multipart.

Ambassador = diplomat, envoy, representative, emissary.

Ambiguity = vagueness, uncertainty, haziness, doubt, indistinctness.

Animus = Temperament, personality, disposition, attitude, hostility, animosity, hatred, ill will, detestation, spitefulness.

Annihilate = wipe out, destroy, obliterate, extinguish, eradicate, exterminate, defeat.

Annul = cancel, call off, withdraw, end, terminate, dissolve, rescind, invalidate.

Anticipate = expect, foresee, look forward to, await, wait for, predict, be hopeful of, think likely.

Antithesis = direct opposite, exact opposite, contrast, converse, reverse.

Appeasement = conciliation, pacification, accession.

Appoint = employ, sign up, hire, assign, take on, select, choose.

Apprise = explain, tell, describe, impart, pass on, acquaint.

Apt = appropriate, suitable, fitting, apposite, pertinent, right, quick.

Arsenal = weapon store, munitions store, magazine, armory, store, battery, fund, cache.

Articulate = eloquent, clear, coherent, fluent, lucid, expressive, communicative.

Assail = attack, assault, beat, set about, lay into, beset, overwhelm, overcome.

Assault = physical attack, beating, stabbing, mugging, battering, mug, beat up.

Assert = declare, state, avow, emphasize, stress, affirm, aver, claim.

Assure = promise, guarantee, give surety, pledge, swear, declare, reassure, comfort.

Aura = air, atmosphere, feeling, impression, sensation, characteristic, characteristic, quality, appearance.

Authentic = genuine, real, bona fide, valid, true, reliable, dependable.

Autonomy = independence, self-sufficiency, self-government, self-rule, sovereignty.

Avenue = street, road, boulevard, path, walk, opportunity, possibility, way.


Banish = expel, send away, exile, deport, evict, drive out, throw out, cast out.

Befitting = be suitable, be relevant, apply, be apt, be applicable.

Belly = stomach, abdomen, tummy.

Beneficial = helpful, useful, valuable, advantageous, positive, positive, favorable, of assistance, of use.

Bereavement = grief, mourning, sorrow, sadness, remembrance, respect.

Bestow = give, confer, bequeath, donate, grant, present, impart.

Betray = be disloyal to, give up, hand over, inform on, let down, deceive, deceive, show accidentally.

Betterment = improvement, furtherance, advancement, benefit, progress.

Bewitching =control someone’s behavior with magic, make someone strongly attracted to you.

Bifurcate = split, fork, divide, diverge, separate, branch off.

Bilateral = two-sided, two-pronged, joint.

Blaze = fire, inferno, conflagration, combustion, burn, be on fire, burst into flames, rage.

Blur = haze, vague impression, shape, shadow, haziness, smudge, smear, distort.

Boast = brag, show off, swank, blow your own horn, sing your own praises, have, possess, pride yourself on.

Bramble = brush with thin sharp points on branches.

Breed = type, strain, class, class, kind, variety, sort, raise, rear.

Brink = edge, rim, lip, threshold, verge, point, precipice.

Bureaucracy = system of government, government, administration, civil service, organization, officialdom, establishment, official procedure.

Bureaucrat = official, public servant, civil servant, administrator, pen pusher.


Caliph = Muslim leader in the past.

Casual = informal, relaxed, laid-back, untailored, unfussy, careless.

Cease = stop, finish, end, come to an end, come to a close, die away, die down, close down.

Censorship = restriction, suppression, control, cutting, editing, bowdlerization, expurgation.

Chore = task, job, errand, odd job, assignment, responsibility, duty, unpleasant task.

Chronological = sequential, in order.

Civilian = inhabitant, resident, national, voter, city dweller.

Clamorous = noisy, vociferous, loud, rowdy, boisterous, deafening, riotous, raucous.

Climate = type of weather, weather, typical weather, temperature, average temperature, environment, atmosphere, ambiance.

Climax = peak, high point, pinnacle, culmination, height, highlight, best moment.

Clue = sign, hint, evidence, inkling, suspicion, indication, trace, intimation.

Coerce = force, pressurize, compel, bully, intimidate, drive, persuade.

Cognitive =reasoning, mental, intellectual, cerebral, perceptive, rational, thinking, thought.

Cohabit = live together, be roommates, share, have a joint household, be roomies, share a house.

Collaborate = work together, join forces, team up, work in partnership, pool resources, act as a team, cooperate with each other.

Commence = begin, start, originate, inaugurate, instigate, initiate.

Communism = collectivism, socialism, Marxism, Leninism, Maoism.

Compel = force, induce, require, coerce, oblige, make, twist somebody's arm, lean on.

Complementary = balancing, opposite, harmonizing, matching, corresponding, paired.

Compliance = fulfillment, conformity, observance, obedience, acquiescence, agreement, falling in line.

Comply = obey, fulfill, meet the terms, act in accordance with, observe, conform, abide by, submit.

Concede = grant, give in, admit, allow, give up, compromise, forfeit.

Conclude = end, bring to a close, close, finish, terminate, finish off, wrap up, wind up.

Concrete = real, tangible, actual, existing, material, solid, physical.

Confer = bestow, award, present, grant, give, talk, discuss.

Confess = admit, own up, plead guilty, come clean, acknowledge, make a clean breast, declare.

Conformity = conventionality, traditional values, traditionalism, orthodoxy, agreement, compliance, consistency, accord.

Connote = mean, bring, predict, imply, presage, suggest, indicate, signify.

Conscious = aware, mindful, cognizant, awake, alert, wide awake.

Console = cheer up, comfort, soothe, calm, relieve, raise somebody's spirits.

Conspiracy = plot, scheme, plan.

Constitute = comprise, make up, form, compose, represent, be, amount to, add up to.

Constitution = establishment, foundation, creation, creation, formation, structure, organization, charter, bill.

Contaminate = pollute, foul, taint, infect, sully, dirty.

Contiguous = neighboring, adjacent, nearby, adjoining, bordering, next, closest, flanking.

Contrary = opposing, different, differing, divergent, dissimilar, opposite, converse.

Convalescence = period of recovery, recuperation, restoration.

Convene = call together, assemble, summon, set up, organize, arrange.

Convict = criminal, crook, offender, prisoner, villain, find guilty, send down, condemn.

Conviction = confidence, certainty, assurance, sincerity, passion, fervor, belief.

Cordial = pleasant, affable, genial, friendly, warm, amiable, jovial, convivial.

Counsel = advice, guidance, direction, warning, advise, recommend, advocate, encourage.

Crackle = fizz, hiss, spit, sputter, buzz, bubble, effervesce.

Creak = squeak, screech, scrape, groan, rasp.

Creed = statement of belief, faith, dogma, doctrine, credo, belief, belief, article of faith.

Cripple = someone physically disabledMake someone physically disabled.

Crisis = disaster, catastrophe, emergency, calamity, predicament.

Criterion = decisive factor, principle, measure, standard, norm, condition, reason.

Critic = detractor, opponent, enemy, censor, reviewer, columnist.

Critical = dangerous, serious, grave, significant, decisive, vital, important.

Criticize = disapprove of, condemn, censure, disparage, carp, pass judgment on, assess.

Crucial = vital, critical, central, decisive, key, essential, fundamental, important.

Culminate = end, conclude, finish, terminate, close.

Culpable = guilty, in the wrong, to blame, blameworthy, responsible, liable.

Culprit = offender, criminal, guilty party, perpetrator, wrongdoer, cause, reason, problem.

Curb = restrain, control, limit, hold back, rein in, curtail, cut back, reduce.

Curious = inquisitive, inquiring, snooping, interested, questioning, probing, nosy, prying.

Cynical = pessimistic, mocking, skeptical, sarcastic, distrustful, suspicious, contemptuous, disparaging.


Damp = moist, humid, soggy, clammy, wet, moisture, dampness.

Damsel = old word for young unmarried woman.

Dare = challenge, defy, taunt, provoke, goad, urge, have the courage, have the guts.

Dart = flit, dash, scurry, whiz, rush, run, zip, nip.

Deadlock = impasse, stalemate, gridlock, standstill, log jam.

Dearth = lack, shortage, drought, famine, want, deficiency, absence.

Debate = discuss, argue, dispute, deliberate, contest, question, ponder, wonder.

Decay = decompose, rot, grow moldy, molder, fester, perish, crumble, putrefy.

Decency = politeness, decorum, decorousness, civility, graciousness, courtesy, affability, politesse.

Deceptive = misleading, illusory, deceiving, to be regarded with suspicion, not to be trusted, unreliable, unrepresentative.

Declaration = statement, announcement, assertion, speech, pronouncement, avowal, affirmation.

Declare = say publicly, state, announce, speak out, assert, affirm, pronounce, proclaim.

Defecate = get rid of solid waste from your body. Excrete, expel, evacuate.

Deject = discourage, dishearten, depress, demoralize, disparage, make unhappy.

Delinquent = criminal, aberrant, antisocial, offending, felonious, wrong, crook.

Demarcate = separate, distinguish, differentiate, isolate, discriminate, segregate, define.

Depart = leave, go away, quit, make tracks, disappear, be off, head off.

Deplete = reduce, eat up, drain, exhaust, use up, diminish, lessen, run down.

Deplore = censure, condemn, criticize, abhor, deprecate, disapprove of, lament.

Deploy = organize, position, arrange, install, set up, set out.

Deprive = divest, rob, leave without, deny, take away, remove, withdraw, dispossess.

Deputation = delegation, group of representatives, commission, mission, lobby group.

Depute = assign, appoint, allocate, commit, order, organize, deputize.

Derange = unbalance, unhinge, madden, drive crazy, drive insane, drive somebody mad, disturb, confuse.

Deregulation = process of removing rules that control something, free, relax, liberalize, decontrol, release.

Descent = fall, drop, dive, tumble, plunge, crash, decline.

Desert = wasteland, wilderness, barren region, arid region, waste, desolate tract, abscond, leave.

Designate = assign, select, choose, delegate, allocate, allocate, elect, appoint, authorize.

Destitute = poor, penniless, impoverished, on the breadline, insolvent, needy.

Deter = discourage, put off, daunt, dissuade, prevent, frighten.

Disrupt = disturb, upset, interrupt, dislocate, disorder.

Dissemination = distribution, broadcasting, diffusion, propagation, spreading, giving out.

Distinct = separate, different, dissimilar, discrete, diverse, divergent, distinctive, individual.

Distinction= difference, division, dissimilarity, peculiarity, feature, characteristic, merit.

Distress = suffering, pain, sorrow, anguish, agony, grief, misery.

Ditch = channel, trench, dike, drain, waterway, conduit, gully, trough.

Divergent = different, differing, deviating, conflicting, opposing, opposite, contrary, contradictory.

Divine = heavenly, celestial, godly, great, marvelous, neat, delightful.

Divisive = discordant, troublesome, disruptive, conflict-ridden.

Domineer = oppress, dictate, bully, intimidate, terrorize, torment, browbeat, persecute.

Dominion = power, authority, control, say-so, command, domination, dominance, territory.

Doodle = drawing, sketch, scribble, picture, squiggle, draw, draw pictures, draw doodles.

Doom = fate, destiny, lot in life, kismet, disaster, trouble end, death.

Dote on = love someone very much.

Dramatic = theatrical, staged, thespian, spectacular, vivid, striking, remarkable, impressive.

Drastic = radical, severe, extreme, dire, sweeping, far-reaching, harsh, strong.

Dual = double, twin, twofold.

Dualistic = belief that something has two aspects, symmetry, contrast, dichotomy, opposition, polarity, differentiation, duality.

Duck = stoop, bend, bow, bob, nod, dip, lower, drop.


Egalitarian = democratic, free, classless, equal, open, unrestricted, uncensored.

Emanate = come, originate, stem, spring, derive, start, radiate, emit.

Embark = go on board, go aboard, board, get on.

Embarrass = humiliate, make self-conscious, mortify, make uncomfortable, make ashamed, make shy, discomfit.

Embitter = become disillusioned, make bitter, become stale, poison, make cynical, become sour.

Embody = exemplify, symbolize, represent, personify.

Embroidery = sewing, needlework, stitching.

Eminent = well-known, renowned, important, distinguished, famous, reputed, prominent.

Emphasize = highlight, stress, give emphasis to, put emphasis on, lay emphasis on, accentuate, call attention to, underline.

Empower = authorize, allow, sanction, give power to, make powerful.

Empowerment = give person or organization legal authority, give someone more control over their life, authorization, permission, leave, consent, liberation, enfranchisement, emancipation, inspiration, encouragement, equality.

Enchant = charm, captivate, fascinate, enthrall.

Encroach = intrude, impinge, infringe, invade, trespass, eat into, influence, make inroads.

Encumbered = laden, weighed down, burdened, overloaded, weighted down, full.

Endure = bear, tolerate, suffer, undergo, last, continue, go on, carry on.

Enfeebling = weaken, debilitate, enervate, deplete, exhaust, wear out, fatigue, sap, undermine, emasculate.

Enfranchisement = give someone the right to vote, make a slave free, empowerment.

Ensure = make sure, make certain, guarantee.

Entwine = tangle, entangle, twist, interweave, interlace, interlink.

Enumerate = itemize, detail, list, catalog, spell out, name, specify, count.

Enunciate = pronounce, articulate, voice, utter, speak, say, vocalize, express.

Envisage = imagine, envision, foresee, predict, visualize, see, picture.

Equity = even-handedness, fairness, impartiality, justice, fair play, justness.

Erupt = explode, blow up, go off, go bang, blow your top, lose your temper, hit the roof, blow a fuse.

Essence = spirit, core, heart, real meaning, soul, quintessence, fundamental nature, concentrate.

Esthetic = artistic, visual, appealing, beautiful.

Evaluation = assessment, estimate, appraisal, valuation, costing, estimation.

Evidence = proof, confirmation, facts, data, substantiation, verification, support, indication.

Exacerbate = make worse, worsen, aggravate, intensify.

Exaggerate = overstate, over stress, embellish, embroider, make a mountain out of a molehill, amplify, inflate, lay it on thick.

Exalt = praise, laud, acclaim, applaud, pay tribute to, sing the praises of.

Exception = exemption, omission, immunity, exclusion.

Execute = carry out, perform, implement, effect, complete, accomplish, finish, put to death.

Executive = decision-making, managerial, administrative, supervisory, management, manager, senior manager, director.

Exhaustion = tiredness, fatigue, collapse, over tiredness.

Exotic = foreign, from abroad, alien, unusual, out of the ordinary, striking, interesting.

Expel = drive out, force out, eject, oust, banish, push out, exorcise.

Exploit = use, develop, make use of, take advantage of, utilize, make the most of, abuse.


Fabulous = wonderful, tremendous, magnificent, marvelous, great, remarkable, extraordinary, amazing.

Facilitate = make easy, ease, smooth the progress of, help, aid, assist.

Factual = truthful, accurate, realistic, based on fact, honest, true-life.

Fade = become paler, lighten, become lighter, lose color, weaken, grow fainter, die away.

Faint = pale, weak, faded, dim, quiet, soft, slight.

Fallacy = misleading notion, erroneous belief, myth.

Fancy = imagine, think, believe, picture, conjure, consider, visualize, interpret.

Fascinate = charm, attract, enthrall, mesmerize, captivate, interest, absorb, intrigue.

Fascinating = charming, attractive, enthralling, mesmerizing, captivating, interesting, absorbing, intriguing.

Feeble = weak, frail, delicate, shabby, thin, meager, pathetic.

Ferment = uproar, tumult, confusion, excitement, commotion, upheaval, agitation, turmoil,

Ferocious = fierce, vicious, violent, cruel, brutal, wild, unruly.

Feudalism = European social system in the Middle Ages. 

Flabbergast = stun, astonish, flummox, sweep away, surprise, surprise, render speechless, dumbfound, amaze.

Flap = flutter, wave, flail, shake beat, wag, panic, dither.

Flaunt = show off, exhibit, display, parade.

Flick = brush, tap, flip.

Flinch = recoil, start, cringe, shy away, balk, drawback, Flinch.

Flock = gather, collect, congregate, congregate, assemble, group, group, form a group.

Fluctuate = vary, change, alter, ebb and flow, rise and fall, come and go, swing, oscillate.

Foliage = plants, plant life, flora, undergrowth, shrubbery.

Forecast = predict, estimate, calculate, project, anticipate, foretell, guess, conjecture.

Forsake = abandon, desert, leave, disown, renounce, relinquish, give up, turn your back on.

Fragrance = smell, scent, heady scent, delicate scent, perfume, aroma, bouquet, cologne.

Frail = weak, fragile, delicate, feeble, in poor health, flimsy, insubstantial.

Frailty = infirmity, weakness, ill-health, defenselessness, shortcoming, imperfection, vice.

Fraught = burdened, full, filled, weighed down, laden, loaded.

Frown = scowl, glare, grimace, puckered brow, mope, sulk.

Frustrate = aggravate, upset, irritate, disturb, annoy, bother, discourage.

Full-fledged = developed, matured, full-grown, complete, grown, qualified, experienced,

Furnish = supply, provide, equip, give, deliver, hand, hand over, endow.

Fuzzy = hairy, furry, fluffy, downy, woolly, blurry, unclear, nebulous.


Gasp = intake of breath, wheeze, pant, puff, huff, breath, struggle for breath, catch your breath.

Glory = magnificence, splendor, wonder, beauty, grandeur, brilliance, credit, fame.

Grant = funding, scholarship, endowment, allowance, contribution, contribution, donation, award, gift.

Grip = hold, grasp, clasp, clutch, hang on, seize, clench, grab.

Groping = investigative, examining, probing, tentative.

Grudge = feeling of resentment, complaint, ill will, chip on your shoulder, rancor, bitterness, resent, hold against.


Hackneyed = trite, cliched, tired, stale, everyday.

Harass = annoy, pester, bother, pursue, be a nuisance, stalk, hassle, worry.

Harbinger = forerunner, herald, portent, omen, indication.

Harp = musical instrument with strings attached to frame.

Haunt = trouble, disturb, irk, worry, bother, preoccupy, appear, hang around in.

Heritage = inheritance, legacy, tradition, birthright, custom.

Hitherto = up till now, up till then, until now, until then, till now, till then, thus far, previously.

Hostile = antagonistic, aggressive, intimidating, unfriendly, unperceptive, unsympathetic, argumentative.

Hostility = antagonism, unfriendliness, resentment, aggression, opposition, lack of sympathy, enmity.

Hue = shade, tone, tinge, tint, color, type, kind, sort.

Humiliate = disgrace, put down, show up, humble, debase.

Humility= humbleness, modesty, unassuming nature, meekness.

 Hymn = song, chant, mantra, tune.

Hype = publicity, propaganda buildup, excitement, hard sell, advertise, build up, plug.


Integration = addition, mixing, incorporation, combination, amalgamation, assimilation.

Illusive = deceptive, false, misleading, not real, erroneous.

Imbroglio = mess, embarrassing situation, embarrassment, entanglement.

Immense = huge, vast, massive, Immense, gigantic, mammoth, giant, colossal.

Impart = pass on, communicate, inform, tell, convey, report, teach, instruct.

Impel = push, force, drive, throw, propel, fling, hurl, thrust.

Implement = put into practice, apply, realize, execute, employ, put into operation, put into service, put into action.

Implication = insinuation, inference, suggestion, allegation, allusion, proposition, connotation, repercussion.

Imply = entail, involve, mean.

Impose = inflict, oblige, compel, force, impress, enforce, entail, require.

Impotence = powerlessness, weakness, helplessness, inability, incapacity.

Impracticable = not viable, unfeasible, unworkable, impossible, impractical.

Improvise = manage, get by, get along, make do, cope, make up, invent, cobble together.

Inclination = leaning, proclivity, penchant, preference, liking, partiality, fondness, tendency.

Incline = predispose, dispose, persuade, prejudice, bias, bring round, slant.

Incredible = hard to believe, unbelievable, implausible, barely credible, far-fetched, absurd, inconceivable.

Inculcate = instill, beat, hammer, pound, say over and over, repeat, indoctrinate.

Indigenous = native, original, aboriginal, home-grown, local.

Integrate = put together, mix, incorporate, add, join together, amalgamate, combine, assimilate.

Intend = mean, aim, be going to, propose, plan, be set to, have it in mind, be determined.

Interpret = understand, take, read, construe, take to mean, infer, read between the lines, deduce.

Intervene = interfere, arbitrate, mediate, intercede, get involved, intrude, occur, happen.

Intervention = interference, involvement, intrusion, intercession.

Intimacy = familiarity, closeness, understanding, relationship, confidence.

Isolate = cut off, separate, segregate, detach.

Itch = irritate, prickle, scratch, tickle, crawl, tingle, itchiness.


Jeopardize = put at risk, risk, put in danger, endanger, lay on the line, expose, make vulnerable.

Jolt = jerk, shake, bump, joggle, nudge, push, shove, shock.

Jurisprudence = study of law, system of laws existing in particular place.

Juvenile = young, youthful, childish, infantile, immature, babyish, adolescent.


Knuckle = part where finger bends or joins hand,


Lamentation = lament, weeping, crying, expression of grief, dirge, howling.

Lapse = slip, fall, tumble, descend, drop, slide, trail off, drift.

Launch = open, start on, start, begin, commence, initiate, instigate get underway.

Lean = bend, bend over, bend forward, incline, tilt, tip, slant, bow.

Lest = in case, for fear that.

Liberal = broadminded, moderate, non interventionist, freethinking, tolerant, laissez-faire.

Liberate = release, free, set free, unshackle, unfetter.

Liberty = freedom, independence, autonomy, emancipation, liberation, right, authorization.

Likely = probable, possible, expected, to be expected, liable, apt, prone.

Loft = attic, roof space, eaves, hit, knock, strike lob, launch.

Lofty = haughty, supercilious, superior, disdainful, snooty, condescending, patronizing, arrogant.

Luminous = glowing, shining, brilliant, bright, incandescent, radiant, gleaming, shimmering.

Lurch = pitch, stagger, rock, tilt, list, reel, roll, sway.

Lure = entice, tempt, attract, decoy, draw in, ensnare, allure, bait.

Lust = yearn, desire, long for, hanker after, hunger for, ache for, envy, covetousness


Magnificent = superb, wonderful, splendid, glorious, brilliant, outstanding, superlative, bravura.

Maiden = word for woman who is not married, first, earliest, initial, original, girl, lass, young woman.

 Maintain = uphold, preserve, keep, continue, keep up, sustain, retain.

Maintenance = preservation, upholding, protection, continuation, safeguarding, continuance, repairs.

Malfunction = break down, go wrong, fail, act up, play up, fault, failure.

Maple = tree of northern countries, with wide leaves,

Maxim = saying, adage, proverb, saw, aphorism, truism, axiom, dictum.

Mediocre = middling, average, ordinary, middle-of-the-road, run of the mill, second-rate, pedestrian, commonplace.

Mediocrity = unevenness, poorness, weakness, patchiness.

Mellifluous = smooth, honeyed.

Mention = talk about, state, cite, bring up, declare, point out, reveal, refer to.

Merge = combine, unite, come together, join, amalgamate, become one join together, fuse.

Metaphor = symbol, figure of speech, simile, image, allegory.

Moan = groan, sigh, whine, whimper, mutter, complain, grumble, gripe.

Monarchy = realm, kingdom, dominion.

Monologue = long speech, long speech in play, movie, etc, soliloquy, speech, prologue, epilogue, aside, solo, oration, address, lecture.

Monopoly = control, domination, cartel.

Mop = wash, wipe, clean, swab, dust, mop up, wipe up, clean up.

Morbid = morose, gloomy, dark, moody, melancholic, gruesome, sinister.

Mutter = murmur, speak softly, talk softly, mumble, whisper, grumble, complain.


Navigation = direction-finding, steering, course-plotting, routing, map-reading.

Nominate = propose, put forward, suggest, name, recommend, submit, appoint, elect.

Nostalgia = homesickness, reminiscence, wistfulness, longing, melancholy.

Novelty = innovation, originality, newness, freshness, uniqueness.


Obligate = force, oblige, necessitate, make necessary, compel, make, require, coerce.

Obligation = compulsion, duty, responsibility, requirement, commitment, debt, contract.

Obligatory = compulsory, mandatory, required, requisite, necessary, essential, binding, enforced.

Obsessive = compulsive, fanatical, fixated, infatuated, neurotic.

Omnipotent = all-powerful, invincible, unstoppable, supreme.

Omniscient = wise, well-informed, sagacious.

Onslaught = attack, assault, ambush, offensive, blitz.

Operate = function, work, run, activate, control, drive, maneuver, manage.

Opine = speak out, harangue, preach, orate, lecture, discourse go on, rant.

Oppose = be in opposition to, be against, go up against, resist, combat, contest, fight, counter.

Oppress = keep down, coerce, tyrannize, dominate, repress, subjugate, subjugate, afflict.

Opt = choose, decide on, select, pick, go for.

Opulent = wealthy, lavish, luxurious, rich, magnificent, affluent, sumptuous.

Orient = familiarize, adjust, get used to, learn about, become conversant with, acquaint yourself with.

Originate = create, invent, initiate, instigate, start off, make, begin, derive.

Overlook = fail to notice, fail to see, ignore, miss, forget, neglect.

Overturn = turn over, knock over, tip over, upend, capsize, topple, upset.


Pact = deal, promise, agreement, treaty, contract, accord, concord, concordat, .

Palliative = soothing, painkilling, analgesic, sedative, calming, sop, gesture.

Pamphlet = leaflet, brochure, booklet, guide, notes.

Pang = twinge, spasm, paroxysm, shooting pain, wrench, cramp, stitch.

Paramount = supreme, dominant, chief, principal, top, overriding, vital.

Pedigree = rare breed, full-blooded, pure-bred, lineage, family background, ancestry, derivation, history.

Penetrate = go through, go in, enter, break in, break through, pierce, infiltrate, make a way into.

Perceive = distinguish, recognize, see, make out, pick out, identify, observe.

Perish = die, expire, pass away, depart this life, give up the ghost, take your last breath.

 Perpetuation = maintenance, continuation, keeping, upholding, .

Perquisite = privilege, gratuity, perk, freebie, freebie, bonus, benefit, extra, advantage.

Personnel = workers, staff, employees, human resources, people, recruits, workforce, persons.

Perturb = trouble, bother, disturb, agitate, worry, upset, be a problem for you.

Pervasive = all-encompassing, enveloping, invasive, persistent, omnipresent, insidious.

Pervert = distort, misrepresent, change, lead astray, deprave, alter, spoil.

Pessimistic = negative, gloomy, distrustful, cynical, glum, unenthusiastic.

Petite = small, diminutive, short, little, elfin.

Pivot = turn, spin around, spin, revolve, pin, rotate, hinge, axle.

Pivotal = essential, key, crucial, fundamental, critical, central.

Placid = easygoing, docile, good-matured, mild-mannered, calm, composed, peaceful, serene.

Plaintive = mournful, sad, melancholic, nostalgic, lamenting.

Plea = appeal, request, petition, entreaty, prayer, supplication, statement, claim.

Pledge = vow, oath, promise, assurance, guarantee, undertaking, word of honor, security.

Poise = bearing, deportment, carriage, good posture, self-assurance, dignity, composure, self-confidence.

Pompous = self-important, arrogant, pretentious, haughty, snobbish, affected, ostentatious, portentous.

Portentous = pompous, pretentious, self-important, haughty, arrogant, significant, important.

Portray = depict, represent, describe, show, reveal, expose, render.

Potency = strength, effectiveness, power, force, influence, might, energy.

Pound = hit, strike, batter, beat, hammer, thump, clobber, pummel.

Pragmatic = practicalrealistic, hardheaded, hard nosed, sensible, matter-of-fact, no-nonsense, down-to-earth.

Preach = lecture, sermonize, moralize, advocate, urge, speak, speak, discourse, talk.

Precedent = example, model, guide, pattern, standard, instance.

Preservative = additive, stabilizer, chemical addition.

Prevail = triumph, win through, succeed, overcome, exist, reign, be happening.

Prime = major, main, key, chief, most important, leading, primary, principal.

Profess = admit, own, own up, confess, acknowledge, agree, allow, recognize.

Profound = deep, thoughtful, reflective, philosophical, weighty, insightful, intense.

Proliferation = propagation, explosion, production, creation, increase, rise, large number, abundance.

Prolong = extend, delay, put off, make longer, lengthen, draw out, protract.

Protest = complaint, objection, gripe, dissent, dispute, disapproval, complain.

Provision = stipulation, rider, condition, proviso, but, if, terms, prerequisite.

Purge = wash out, cleanse, clean, flush out, sluice, rid, eliminate, remove. 

Purgation = the act of purging or being purged.

Pursuit = chase, hunt, search, quest, detection, tracking down, hobby, recreation.

Puzzle = mystery, enigma, riddle, conundrum, poser, problem, dilemma, brainteaser.


Queer = surprising, funny, astonishing, perplexing, odd, curious, unexpected, remarkable.


Rabid = extreme, fanatical, radical, uncompromising, bigoted, militant, narrow-minded.

Raid = attack, search, forced entry, robbery, break-in, incursion, invasion, foray.

Rational = lucid, sane, balanced, normal, cogent, coherent, based on reason.

Rear = back, stern, bring up, raise, care for, nurture, take care of.

Rebel = insurgent, mutineer, revolutionary, radical, dissenter, rise up, revolt, fight back.

Recommend = advocate, advise, counsel, suggest, urge, propose, commend.

Reconcile = settle, put to rights, bring together, square, reunite, resolve, merge, patch up.

Rectification = refinement, minor adjustment, alteration, modification, adaptation.

Rectify = put right, set right, correct, remedy, cure, repair, fix, resolve.

Rehabilitate = restore, recover, regenerate, mend, recuperate, repair, re-establish, revitalize.

Relieve = ease, alleviate, allay, reduce, mitigate, lessen, lighten, help.

Relish = enjoy, delight in, savor, take pleasure in, like, appreciate, enjoyment.

Rely on = depend on, bank on, count on, trust, have confidence in.

Remedy = medicine, medication, preparation, mixture, therapy, cure, tonic, cough medicine.

Render = cause to be, make, leave, turn into, provide, give, deliver, submit.

Repatriate = send home, send back.

Repudiation = denial, refutation, negation, disclaimer.

Resign = leave, leave your job, quit, walk out, give notice, give up your job.

Resolution = decree, declaration, decision, motion, ruling, promise, pledge, oath.

Resonance = timbre, quality, character, tone, reverberation, significance, meaning, importance.

Resort = option, alternative, remedy, way out, choice, route.

Restraint = self-control, control, command, self-possession, self-discipline, moderation, limit.

Retrenchment = reduction of expenditure, cutback, economizing.

Revive = revitalize, renew, perk up, breathe life into, restore, refresh, restart, stimulate.

Revolt = rebellion, revolution, uprising, upheaval, insurgency, insurrection, mutiny, riot.

Rival = competitor, opponent, adversary, contender, challenger, enemy, foe, equal.

Rivalry = competition, opposition, contention, enmity, challenge, jealousy.

Rock = astound, shock, shake, stun, sway, swing, move up and down, pitch.

Rut = furrow, groove, channel, runnel, pothole.

Ruthless = cruel, callous, brutal, pitiless, merciless, coldblooded, hard nosed, unfeeling.


Salient = most important, outstanding, prominent, relevant, significant, leading, main.

Salute = greeting, address, salutation, signal, acknowledgment, gesture.

Sanctimonious = self-righteous, holier-than-thou, smug, pious.

Satire = send-up, spoof, lampoon.

Savior = redeemer, rescuer, knight in shining armor, liberator.

Scaffold = gallows, gibbet.

Scarcity = shortage, lack, dearth, insufficiency, paucity, scarceness.

Scenario = situation, state of affairs, state, set-up, circumstances, setting, picture.

Scold = tell off, reprimand, tick off, yell at, reproach, rebuke, admonish, discipline.

Self-deception = making yourself believe something false, the action of making yourself believe something good that is not true, especially something about yourself.

Self-reliance = independence self-sufficiency autonomy.

Serf = farm worker who was not free, in the past, someone who lived and worked on land belonging to another person and who could not leave without that person’s permission.

Serfdom = The condition of being serf.

Shamble = shuffle, amble, waddle, drag your feet, walk.

Sheer = pure, utter, absolute, complete, total, steep, vertical, perpendicular.

Sibling = fraternal, brotherly, familial, genealogical, brother, sister, relative, relation.

 Sigh = exhale noisily, heave a sigh, moan, groan.

Slang = jargon, vernacular, colloquial speech.

Slaughter = kill, murder, massacre, slay, butcher, killing, carnage, butchery.

Sleek = smooth, shiny, glossy, silky, lustrous.

Slightly = somewhat, to some extent, a little, faintly, vaguely.

Slogan = motto, saying, jingle, catchphrase, watchword.

Snap = break, crack, shatter, sudden, spur-of-the-moment, impulsive, spontaneous, instant.

Sneer = scorn, scoff, turn your nose up at, mock, deride, laugh at, snicker.

Solace = comfort, consolation, support, relief, succor.

Sole = only, solitary, one and only, single, individual, singular, lone, exclusive.

Solely = exclusively, only.

Solidarity = unity, harmony, cohesion, shared aims, commonality, camaraderie, team spirit.

Solitude = loneliness, privacy, isolation, seclusion.

Sordid = squalid, disgusting, low, dirty, distasteful, grimy, grubby, foul.

Sovereign = ruler, monarch, supreme ruler, independent, autonomous, self-governing, supreme, superior.

Sovereignty = dominion, rule, power, control, independence, autonomy, self-government.

Spade = shovel, scoop.

Spatial = relating to the size, shape, and position of things, and the relation of objects to each other in space, relating to people’s ability to understand size, shape, position, and depth, three- dimensional, 3-D.

Sphere = ball, globe, bubble, orb, area, specialty, subject, field.

Splash = splatter, get water on, wet, dash, spray, plaster, spatter, display.

Splendid = fine, grand, superb, impressive, marvelous, wonderful, super, fabulous.

Sponsor = back, support, pay for, subsidize, fund, backer, supporter, guarantor.

Stagnation = situation in which economy is not growing, situation with no progress or growth, inactivity, inaction, inertia, torpor, sluggishness, immobility.

Statute = decree, act, law, ruling, edict, bill, order.

Statutory = constitutional, legal, legislative.

Stereotype = typecast, label, pigeonhole.

Stipend = salary, pay, earnings, income, take-home pay, remuneration, gross, net.

Strategy = plan, policy, approach, tactic, line of attack, stratagem.

Stun = shock, daze, astonish, astound, stagger, confound, bewilder, make unconscious.

Sturdy = strong, powerful, strapping, muscular, brawny, well-built, robust.

Sublime = inspiring, inspirational, uplifting, awe-inspiring, moving, transcendent, magnificent.

 Subordinate = secondary, lesser, minor, subsidiary, inferior, lower, assistant.

Subservience = too willing to obey other people, submissive, obedient, compliant, acquiescent, docile, deferential, passive, meek, servile.

 Subsidies = subsidy.

Subsidize = support financially, finance, fund, sponsor, back, promote.

Substantial = considerable, large, extensive, sizable, significant, important, generous, ample.

Substitute = alternate, replacement, stand-in, surrogate, proxy, deputy, reserve, replace with.

Subtle = slight, delicate, faint, restrained, fine, understated, clever.

Suburb = community, village, town, colony, commune, hamlet, neighborhood.

Suffer = undergo, experience, bear, endure, go through, put up with, be ill with, have a medical condition.

Suffocate = smother, choke, stifle, throttle, asphyxiate.

Superior = better, greater, bigger, higher, more, finer, better-quality, advanced.

Supervision = management, direction, administration, regulation, command, control, care, custody.

Surrender = give in, give up, admit defeat, lay down your arms, submit, yield, capitulate.

Suspect = think, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, guess, deduce, infer.

Sustain = maintain, continue, carry on, keep up, keep going, uphold, prolong, protract.

Sustainable = capable of continuing at same level, using methods that do not harm environment, maintainable, supportable, bearable, justifiable, workable, defensible, viable.

Sustenance = nourishment, nutrition, food, provisions, rations, edibles, fuel.

Swirl = whirl, twirl, spin, eddy, churn.

Symposium = conference, seminar, meeting, convention.

Synchronize = harmonize, coordinate, orchestrate, bring into line, match, make tally.


Tempt = lure, entice, attract, appeal to, excite, persuade, persuade, convince, coax.

Tentative = hesitant, cautious, uncertain, faltering, unsure, timid, provisional.

Terminate = end, finish, come to an end, conclude, stop, cease, expire, lapse.

Terminus = last stop, station, end, end of the line, finishing point, boundary, limit.

Terribly = awfully, dreadfully, appallingly, horribly, offensively, intolerably, very.

Terrify = frighten, horrify, scare, petrify, shock, alarm, panic.

Throb = pound, thump, beat, beat, pulsate, pulse, thud, vibrate, pounding.

Tilt = tip slope, slant, lean, angle, incline, roll gradient.

Toil = labor, work hard, work, sweat, slog, plug away, strive, hustle.

Tonic = boost, stimulant, pick-me-up, shot in the arm, energizer, refresher.

Toss = throw, pitch, fling, lob, chuck, flip, hurl, let fly.

Trance = dream, daze, spell, stupor, reverie, daydream, sleep, abstraction.

Treachery = deceit, treason, deceitfulness, betrayal, disloyalty, duplicity, perfidy, sedition, perfidy.

Tremendous = marvelous, wonderful, great, incredible, fantastic, fabulous, remarkable, terrific.

Trivial = unimportant, small, inconsequential, minor, insignificant, slight, trifling, petty.


Underlie = lie beneath, lie behind, motivate, cause, inspire, trigger, bring about, be the cause of.

Undue = unwarranted, excessive, too much, unnecessary, unjustified, unjustifiable, gratuitous, uncalled-for.

Urinate = get rid of urine from your body.

Utter = complete, absolute, total, sheer, downright, unreserved, unqualified, thorough.


Vacillate = waver, hesitate, be indecisive, dither, think twice, fluctuate.

Vague = indistinct, unclear, indistinguishable, hazy, fuzzy, formless, blurred.

Vanish = disappear, evaporate, fade away, peter out, go, become extinct, die out.

Venerate = revere, worship, adore, idolize, esteem, honor, respect, hold in the highest regard.

Vent = give vent to, find expression for, expel, voice, emit, utter, escape, declare.

Verge = edge, border, threshold, limit, brink, margin.

Verily = An old word used for emphasizing that something is true.

Vest = confer, bestow, devolve, consign, entrust, assign, lodge, tee shirt, top, tee.

Vigil = time when you wait in a place, quiet political protest held at night, time when you stay awake to pray, religious ceremony at night.

Vigor = energy, dynamism, drive, vitality, force, strength, heartiness, verve.

Vigorous = energetic, vital, dynamic, forceful, strong, hearty, enthusiastic, spirited.

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